Brief Reflections on “Archiving”

28 February 2014

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Day 5 – Last Day at the Rockefeller Archive Center

It’s been a great week. Five full days spent digging through the collections at the Rockefeller Archive Center in search of the short-lived New York Police Department Psychopathic Laboratory. It had its ups and downs, but then again, I suppose all archive trips have a few of those. And it was both exhausting and energizing.

For the non-initiated: archiving is hard work. I realize it doesn’t look like much, but I promise you’ll change your mind after a week spent in the reading room. Sifting through page after page of documents and diligently taking notes for eight or so hours is not as easy as it seems. It’s draining both physically and mentally. Moreover, the day does not merely run from opening to closing. The week also consists of late nights spent checking notes, re-reading sources, and trying to follow up with leads, questions, and general breadcrumbs. Dinner conversation inevitably turns to a focus on the day’s discoveries (or frustrations). The brain is constantly turned “on” – so the week is a long one.

Despite the work that goes into it, I find archiving ridiculously energizing for my “historian spirit.” The detective-like process of seeking out the little clues and slowly figuring out how the puzzle fits together is amazingly fun. I may feel like I’m in desperate need of a nap, but I’ve also already written most of a paper in my head (and parts on paper). Now to just keep that motor running…


Archival Frustration: How could there be no mention? (and who is Eleanor I. Keller?)

27 February 2014

Day 4: at the Rockefeller Center Archives

I should have known that yesterday‘s excitement was too good to be true. Today I felt like all I did was face one question after another. The New York Psychopathic Laboratory was only open from 1916-1917 (with a trial run in 1915 and a “revival” of sorts in 1926-1927) so, in theory, it should be easy to locate within the Minutes and financial records of the Bureau of Social Hygiene. Right? Wrong. I flipped through page after page, folder after folder, madly clicking away with my camera in the hopes that maybe I was just missing something that should be staring me in the face. There was nothing (except a bunch of information about a project I’d like to pursue in the future about the Bedford Reformatory). I’m in a state of disbelief.

The work has also raised some other interesting questions such as: who is Eleanor I. Keller? She’s listed as the psychologist who worked at the Laboratory, but she exists as nothing more than a cursory mention on the staff list in the archival record. Given that the purpose of the Laboratory was to perform both psychiatric and psychological testing on those arrested at New York’s Police Headquarters, I would say she must have played a fairly critical role. And yet my cursory searches for her have yet to provide much detail. One of the issues is that when you Google “Eleanor I. Keller” you get a lot of hits about the meetings/correspondence between Eleanor Roosevelt and Helen Keller. And after a day of archiving, my energy levels permit little more than a quick Google search. I know she wrote about her work at the Laboratory – and I know her start and end dates for this work. But I don’t know much else yet – where did she get her PhD? Who did she work with? Typically I would approach the challenge as an exciting bit of detective work but after today’s frustrations in the archival records I’m feeling somewhat more negative about the venture.

 


Seek and Ye Shall Find: A Great Day in the Archives

26 February 2014

Day 3: at the Rockefeller Archive Center

Last night over dinner with Jeremy Burman, I was complaining about a number of questions that my work this week in the Bureau of Social Hygiene collection at the Rockefeller Archive Center was raising. I explained that I felt like I was on the edge of understanding several elements connected to the Psychopathic Laboratory but when I held them up to the light, could see nothing but holes. I think “the archives” may have been listening in on my conversation: Folder after folder today answered each of my questions in turn (and even confirmed two “gut” hunches). The answers were so direct to my questions that I actually felt a momentary chill on my spine.

Silliness aside, it was a wonderful day.

The day also made it clear how nice it is to travel with someone. On the one hand it has been helpful to discuss with a colleague what I’ve been reading and how the pieces of the puzzle are slowly starting to fit together. But on the other hand, it’s really refreshing to have someone to share the joys of discovery as they arise during the day. It can be a bit deflating to come across a particularly juicy detail or exciting clue only to look around the room and realize that everyone else is busy with their own projects and not interested in your news. Having a colleague the next desk over (who is also patient and willing to come see what you’re madly gesturing at) has been a real treat this week.


How to make your researchers feel spoiled

25 February 2014

P1050247Day 2: at the Rockefeller Archive Center

I have the distinct feeling of being spoiled this week. First it was the cookies in the researcher lounge, now it’s a lunch hosted by the staff of the Rockefeller Archive Center. At 12:30 an invitation was put out in the reading room, calling researchers to join the RAC staff for a meal and introductions. What impressed me even more was not the interested conversation around the table but the efforts undertaken by the individual staff members to make suggestions relevant to each of our widely varying research projects. At this rate I’m going to be hard pressed to leave when the week is over.

But Day 2 was not all food and conversation – in the morning I read through some of the annual reports of the Bureau of Social Hygiene to get a sense of the various projects it was funding in the early decades of the twentieth century. Post-lunch it was back to the New York Police Psychopathic Laboratory records. In addition to the stacks of case histories detailing the personal histories of those who were  tested by the laboratory, I came across a number of interesting newspaper and magazine articles that seem to capture the aim of the laboratory as not simply to identify individuals among those being arrested who were to be labelled “mentally defective” (to use the terminology of the period) but also to prevent future crimes (see online samples here and here). I became so lost in my reading that I lost all track of time and had to be told that the reading room was closing for the day. Back to it tomorrow!

 


A new(ish) project: NY Psychopathic Laboratory

24 February 2014

Rockefeller Archive Center GatesDay 1: at the Rockefeller Archive Center

I’ve rang bells and buzzers, talked into intercoms, and even called down a private elevator via an old red phone that gave me the feeling of being on a secret mission – but today was the first time I’ve entered through the gates of what seemed otherwise to be the private entrance to a grand home in order to conduct archival research.

In actuality, the Rockefeller Archive Center in Sleepy Hollow, NY is a grand home entered via a private gate — the archives operates within Hillcrest, the home built for Martha Baird Rockefeller, second wife of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Completed in 1963 the house has the feel of a much older era with nineteenth century portraits on the walls and Victorian furnishings. The lockers for researchers are neatly hidden inside M.B.R.’s closet and the reading room on the second floor was originally designed to be a sitting room. The dining room has even been converted for use by researchers in need of a break, complete with a coffee machine and a tin of cookies (!!) on the table. Hardly a shabby environment in which to spend some time searching through boxes of archival documents.

Cookie and décor distractions aside: I’m on the trail of a new(ish) project. I’ve recently begun focusing my attention on the history of “criminal insanity” – how it was defined and the institutions that were specially designated for those assigned with the title. As part of this larger project, I jumped when an opportunity presented itself to spend the week at the Rockfeller Archive Center and consult the papers related to the New York Police Psychopathic Laboratory (H/T to Jeremy Burman for the invitation to tag along on his dissertation research trip). Read the rest of this entry »


One More Summer Roadtrip: Wood County Lunatic House

10 September 2013
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The Lunatic House sits beside the main Infirmary building

This is a special post co-authored by Jennifer Bazar, Elissa Rodkey, and Jacy Young and published simultaneously at both the Advances in the History of Psychology (AHP) and FieldNotes blogs.

Yes, we do listen to your suggestions! Earlier this summer, historian of psychology Ryan Tweney left us a comment in response to our post about our roadtrip to the Glore Psychiatric Museum in St Joseph, Missouri. Tweney said we might also enjoy visiting the “Lunatic House” in Bowling Green, Ohio – so we decided to make one last trip before fall was officially upon us.

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Front entrance to the Infirmary building

The Lunatic House in Bowling Green is actually a part of a collection of buildings that now constitute the Wood County Historical Center and Museum. The primary exhibits are located in the oldest and largest building on the property: the infirmary. The displays take you through the rooms, floors, and wings of the building – beginning first with the history of the County Home itself before growing outwards to include medical history, technological developments, and a history of Ohio.

The site is quite unique, as one of the last remaining county poorhouses in Ohio with a majority of the original structures still standing. The poorhouse system dates to the early nineteenth century in the Unites States. Individual counties provided residential institutions (often as part of farm land) to house those who were unemployed or otherwise did not have the financial means to support themselves. Much like other states, every county in Ohio opened its own poorhouse. By mid-century, the Ohio General Assembly ordered these facilities to take in a wider population including the infirm, the elderly, and the mentally ill – renaming the poorhouses “infirmaries.” They later took on the name “county home” in 1919. Read the rest of this entry »


Visiting Robbers Cave: A History of Psychology Roadtrip

10 July 2013

Robbers Cave sign

This is a special post co-authored by Jacy Young and Jennifer Bazar and published simultaneously at both the Advances in the History of Psychology (AHP) and FieldNotes blogs.

This June, following a successful Cheiron meeting in Dallas, Texas two of AHP’s bloggers (Jacy Young and Jennifer Bazar, the latter also of FieldNotes) along with Kelli Vaughn-Johnson traveled to Robbers Cave State Park in Southeast Oklahoma. Our goal was to track down the Boy Scouts camp used as the site of the now infamous 1954 Robbers Cave experiment and see what remains nearly 60 years later.

Read the rest of this entry »


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